Country Name Republic of India; Bharat Ganrajya Location The Indian peninsula is separated from mainland Asia by the Himalayas. The Country is surrounded by the Bay of Bengal in the east, the Arabian Sea in the west, and the Indian Ocean to the south. Geographic Coordinates Lying entirely in the Northern Hemisphere, the Country extends between 8° 4' and 37° 6' latitudes north of the Equator, and 68° 7' and 97° 25' longitudes east of it. Distance: North-South: 3.214 km, East-West: 2.933 km Indian Standard Time GMT + 05:30 Area 3.3 Million sq. km Telephone Country Code +91 Border Countries Afghanistan and Pakistan to the north-west; China, Bhutan and Nepal to the north; Myanmar to the east; and Bangladesh to the east of West Bengal. Sri Lanka is separated from India by a narrow channel of sea, formed by Palk Strait and the Gulf of Mannar. Coastline 7,516.6 km encompassing the mainland, Lakshadweep Islands, and the Andaman & Nicobar Islands. Terrain The mainland comprises of four regions, namely the great mountain zone, plains of the Ganga and the Indus, the desert region, and the southern peninsula.
Population India's population, as on 1 March 2001 stood at 1,028 million (532.1 million males and 496.4 million females). Nationality Indian Ethnic Groups All the five major racial types – Australoid, Mongoloid, Europoid, Caucasian, and Negroid find representation among the people of India. Religions According to the 2001 census, out of the total population of 1.028 million in the Country, Hindus constituted the majority with 80.5%, Muslims came second at 13.4%, followed by Christians, Sikhs, Buddhists, Jains, and others. Languages There are 22 National Languages have been recognized by the Constitution of India, of which Hindi is the Official Union Language. Besides these, there are 844 different dialects that are practiced in various parts of the Country. Literacy According to the provisional results of the 2001 census, the literacy rate in the Country stands at 64.84 per cent, 75.26% for males and 53.67% for females. Government Type Sovereign Socialist Democratic Republic with a Parliamentary system of Government. Capital New Delhi Administrative Divisions 28 States and 7 Union Territories. Independence 15th August 1947 (From the British Colonial Rule) Constitution The Constitution of India came into force on 26th January 1950. Legal System The Constitution of India is the fountain source of the legal system in the Country. Executive Branch The President of India is the Head of the State, while the Prime Minister is the Head of the Government, and runs office with the support of the Council of Ministers who form the Cabinet Ministry. Legislative Branch The Indian Legislature comprises of the Lok Sabha (House of the People) and the Rajya Sabha (Council of States) forming both the Houses of the Parliament. Judicial Branch The Supreme Court of India is the apex body of the Indian legal system, followed by other High Courts and subordinate Courts. Flag Description The National Flag is a horizontal tricolour of deep saffron (kesaria) at the top, white in the middle, and dark green at the bottom in equal proportion. At the centre of the white band is a navy blue wheel, which is a representation of the Ashoka Chakra at Sarnath.